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Industrial tower in the largest mining tailings reservoir in Europe

Żelazny Most Reservoir is the largest reservoir for copper mining tailings in Europe, owned by KGHM Polska Miedź. It was put into exploitation on February 12, 1977. There are 4 industrial overflow towers on the site. One of them in 2018 was equipped with vertical 3DSensors to monitor temperatures and horizontal displacements. One of the reasons for DFOS-based monitoring system installation were construction works to build the tower’s new floors.
Ingenieurbauwerke
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High pressure gas pipeline: measure-ments of safety-critical structure

The 500-mm diameter gas pipeline in question is located on the mining area, where extremely large displacements can appear. 180 m long section was equipped with a number of EpsilonRebars and 3DSensors, installed both directly on the steel surface of the pipe as well in the surrounding ground. Reliable structural control of such safety-critical structures is necessary due to the extremely large failure consequences. Nerve-Sensors allowed for detailed control during long-term monitoring.
Geotechnics
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Sewer concrete collector during its strengthening with GRP panels

The concrete sewage collector in question was constructed in 1964 and now reinforced with Glass-fiber Reinforcement Plastic (GRP) panels. To verify the strengthening process, EpsilonRebars (ER) and EpsilonSensor (ES) from Nerve-Sensors family were installed inside the near-to-surface grooves. ERs go longitudinally over entire 150 m long section, while ES was installed in selected key circumferences. The system allowed for detailed analysis of strains, cracks, displacements and temperatures.
Geotechnics
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Steel girders during mechanical load tests: elastic and plastic strains

A number of steel girders designed for bridge applications were investigated in laboratory conditions during mechanical tests. The research includes MCL girders as well as I- and H-beams. The challenge in this project was to measure extremely high strains, exceeding significantly the range of elastic behaviour. Thanks to DFOS strain sensors it was possible to analyze yielding process up to 20 000 µε in tension and 10 000 µε in compression.
Forschung
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Concrete slab strengthened with FRP composites

The reinforced concrete slabs were investigated in laboratory conditions in mechanical four point bending tests. Some of them were strengthened with FRP material to analyze the effectiveness of such solution. However, the application of FRP prevented visual inspection of cracks. That is why all the slabs were equipped with distributed optical fibre strain sensors between the concrete and strengthening material, what allowed for detection of all the cracks invisible to the naked eye.
Forschung
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Concrete „tomograph”

The very challenging experiment, where the concrete cube was equipped with embedded optical sensors in three directions XYZ. The total number of 75 sections for strain and 25 sections for temperature measurements were created, without disturbing the structural performance of concrete. The aim of the research was to analyze spatial bahaviour of massive element during the hydration and shrinkage process, including temperatures and heat transfer.
Forschung
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Concrete column-slab system: simulation of column failure

The performance of full-scale concrete structure was investigated during the simulation of column failure. EpsilonSensors were installed inside the slab by tightening to the existing reinforcement. The main aim was to observe the crack morphology. What is more, additional optical fibres were glued to the steel reinforcement to analyze its behaviour during yielding process. The Nerve-Sensor system was able to measure strains successfully during the entire research up until the structural failure.
Forschung
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A slurry wall within R&D projects – strain and displacement measurements

The subject of the project was the slurry wall made of a new type of material: fiber-reinforced concrete mixed with the ground. This economic technology must be carefully checked before widespread use. The EspilonRebars once again were used for this purpose. The structural performance of the wall was monitored during deeping the excavation as well as during the mechanical load tests. Thanks to Nerve-Sensors it was possible to detect cracks but also to calculate horizontal displacements.
Geotechnik
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A slurry wall within R&D projects – strain and crack measurements

The subject of the project was the slurry wall made of a new type of material: fiber-reinforced concrete mixed with the ground. This economic technology must be carefully checked before widespread use. The EspilonRebars were used for this purpose. The structural performance of the wall within the research field was monitored during deeping the excavation as well as during the load tests. Thanks to Nerve-Sensors it was possible to detect cracks and fractures invisible for other techniques.
Geotechnik
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Strains and displacements in asphalt layers: dynamic load tests

This project involves two types of road surface structures equipped with Nerve-Sensors, measuring both strains (EpsilonRebars) and displacements (3DSensor). All of them were embedded into the road layers during its construction, providing the possibility of analysis its internal behavior under dynamic load tests (truck’s runs). Our system was successfully applied for analysis the structural response in real time, including all dynamic effects registered using high-frequency mode.
Geotechnik
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Strains and displacements in asphalt layers: static load tests & SHM

This project involves two types of road surface structures equipped with Nerve-Sensors, measuring both strains (EpsilonRebars) and displacements (3DSensor). All of them were embedded into the road layers during its construction, providing the possibility of analysis its internal structural behavior under static proof load tests. Our nervous system supplemented by spot temperature sensors was used successfully also in terms of long-term structural health monitoring (SHM).
Geotechnik
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Steel-concrete railway bridge: strains and cracks during load tests

The composite (steel-concrete) bridge in Dąbrowa Górnicza was designed according to a new approach and put into the service in 2019. That is why verification of its structural performance under real operating conditions was of significant importance. The bridge was equipped with DFOS strain sensors, installed both on the concrete and steel surfaces. The measurements during load tests allowed for detailed analysis of the deformation state, including the detection of all microcracks.
Ingenieurbauwerke
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Road embankment with EpsilonRebars

In the present case study, the base of the road embankment was reinforced by composite rebars in two directions. This solution is favorable in the context of durability due to the high resistance of composites to corrosion. Some of the bars were replaced with EpsilonRebars, which now have a double function in the structure: both sensing and reinforcing. Two measurement layers allowed also for the calculation of vertical displacement profiles.
Geotechnik
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Road embankment strengthened with concrete column

The road embankment was designed above the substrate strengthened with concrete columns. The transmission layer between the columns and earth body of the structure was equipped with Nerve-Sensors: EpsilonRebars (ER) and 3DSensors for measuring strains and vertical displacements respectively. A total number of 16 sensors were installed both in longitudinal and transverse directions. What is more, the sensors were used for simultaneous measurements of temperatures.
Geotechnik
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Cable-stayed bridge: localized effects due to the steel anchorage

The steel cable-stayed bridge in Przemyśl was put into the service in 2012. At the time of construction, it was the fourth-highest bridge in Poland. It is supported by two 61.5 meter high pylons and its total length (inc. overpasses) is equal to 530 m. In 2017, the bridge was equipped with distributed fiber optic sensors (DFOS) dedicated for strain and temperature measurements. Two measurement sections were installed in cooperation with the students of the scientific association.
Ingenieurbauwerke
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Displacements of a road embankment above the strengthened substrate

Within this project, two 3DSensors were installed along a road embankment in order to measure its vertical displacements. Two independent lines of 3DSensors, each 48 m long were provided, together with multiple reference measurement techniques: longitudinal and transverse inclinometers, spot tiltmeters, and geodetic benchmarks. Vertical displacements were measured in a distributed way with 3DSensors and compared with the results of reference methods.
Geotechnik
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3DSensor – Bodenverformung

3DSensoren wurden neben einen Fundamentfuß installiert, der dann während des Herausziehens aus dem Boden, d.h. unter extrem großer Verformungen, untersucht wurde. Die Einzigartigkeit dieser Installation basiert vor allem auf der Tatsache, dass keine andere Messtechnik in der Lage ist, die während des Versuchs auftretenden Phänomene zu identifizieren. Keiner der auf dem Markt erhältlichen Verformungssensoren könnte ohne erhebliche Interferenzen in den untersuchten Boden eingebaut werden, was zu einer Störung der analysierten Phänomene und der Möglichkeit ihrer Fehlinterpretation führen würde.

Geotechnik
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Faseroptische Messungen an der PWr (Technische Universität Wrocław)

Die Messungen mit der DFOS-Technologie (Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing) wurden im Labor der Fakultät für Bauingenieurwesen an der Technischen Universität Wrocław durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Dehnungsmessungen, die auf quasikontinuierliche Weise über entworfene Messstrecken durchgeführt wurden, werden von den Doktoranden dieser Fakultät für ihre Dissertationen verwendet.

Forschung
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A1 – Smart Highway mit integriertem Selbstdiagnosesystem

Nerve-Sensors / SHM System hat einen Pilotabschnitt des Fahrbahns, das als Teil der Autobahn A1 südlich von Czestochowa (Polen) gebaut wird, mit dem einzigartigen Structural Health Monitoring System ausgestattet. Dieser Abschnitt mit einer Länge von 100 m ist ausschließlich mit GFK-Stäben bewehrt, einschließlich solcher, die mit optischen Fasern für quasikontinuierliche Dehnungsmessungen ausgestattet sind. Das bedeutet, dass die verwendeten Stäbe nicht nur die als Bewehrung dienen, sondern auch als integrierte Sensoren, die Informationen über Dehnungen und auftretende Risse liefern.
Ingenieurbauwerke
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Intelligente Fußgängerbrücke in Nowy Sącz, Polen, ausgestattet mit EpsilonRebars

DFOS-Sensoren in Form von Faserverbundstäben, die gleichzeitig als Bewehrung für das Betonfahrbahn dienen, wurden entlang der gesamten Spannweite von fast 80 m angebracht. Durch der Anwendung der verteilten faseroptischen Technologie war es möglich, Messungen von Dehnungen, Verformungen (Durchbiegungen) und Temperaturänderungen in einer quasi-kontinuierlichen Weise entlang der gesamten Länge der Fußgängerbrücke durchzuführen. Die in die Fahrbahn integrierten Sensoren wurden zur Messung ausgewählter Größen während der Hydratation des Betons (Dehnungen infolge Temperatur und Schwinden) sowie während der Belastungstests eingesetzt

Ingenieurbauwerke
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Skyliner Wolkenkratzer

Die weltweit einzigartige Lösung war der Einsatz der intelligenten EpsilonRebar-Sensoren (DFOS-Technologie) mit einer Länge von jeweils 17 m zur Überwachung des Verhaltens der Gründungspfähle. Durch der quasikontinuierlichen Messungen über die gesamte Länge der Sensoren ist es möglich, die in das Fundament eingeleitete Kräfte, welche bei der Errichtung der nachfolgenden Stockwerke des Wolkenkratzers entstehen, zu analysieren. Die EpsilonRebar Sensoren ermöglichen auch die Identifizierung der schwächsten Querschnitte und der aufgetretenen Risse. Vier faseroptische Sensoren, die auf der Skyliner-Baustelleinstalliert sind, liefern Daten, die 13 600 herkömmlichen punktuellen Dehnungsmessstreifen entsprechen.

Ingenieurbauwerke
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Prestressed truck scale platforms

EpsilonRebars were used to record strain and temperature changes along several tests during different phases of the platforms lifecycle, starting from hydration process (thermal-shrinkage strains), through tendons activation (strains regarding the transfer of compression forces from the tendons to the concrete) and finally during laboratory tests, when slabs were mechanically loaded in four-point bending test until destruction. Strains and temperatures were recorded every 30 minutes during first day of concrete hydration.

Forschung
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57-year-old posttensioned crane girder

This case study presents the results of static and high-frequency strain measurements of a 57-year-old posttensioned crane girder, dismantled from one of the production halls. DFOS system enabled for analysis of anchorage zone and transmission length of the tendon related to the quality of cement injection around the prestressing tendon. The application of Nerve-Sensors allowed for detailed analysis in both longitudinal and transverse directions, including crack detection and estimation of their widths.

Laboratory
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Cable-stayed bridge in Rzeszów: steel girder as a displacement sensor

The T. Mazowiecki cable-stayed bridge in Rzeszów was put into service in 2015. The bridge is 482 m long, with two traffic lanes in each direction. The structure is supported by a 107-m long A-shaped pylon with 64 cables. In 2018, the bridge was equipped with distributed fiber optic sensors for strain and temperature measurements. What is more, one of the main aims was to create the displacement 3DSensor from the steel girder itself along the 150 m long river span.
Eng. Structures
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CFA concrete columns

This case study presents the analysis of Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) column based on the strain and temperature measurements carried out continuously over the length of 12 m. The measurements were done during the load tests, but also in the early-age concrete, when thermal-shrinkage strains appeared. Obtained data allowed for estimation of integrity and load bearing capacity of the columns, their cooperation with surrounding layered ground as well as calibration of spatial finite element method model and verify theoretical assumptions.

Geotechnics
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Museum of Modern Art: load tests of large-diameter piles

The project is one of the most prestigious investments built in the heart of Poland’s capital. Museum of Modern Art is a structure with untypical designed, raising in close proximity of existing infrastructure. Foundations include deep large-diameter piles, which were equipped with EpsilonRebars for safety reasons. Measurements done during load tests allowed for detailed analysis of piles structural performance and force transferring to the surrounding ground.
Eng. Structures
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Smart prestressed concrete girders

In this project strain and temperature measurements were performed during the most important stages of construction lifetime, including hydration process (thermal-shrinkage strains), prestressing (tendons activation in order to transfer the compressing force to the concrete), activation of structural dead-weight (as a direct consequence of prestressing phase), installation within the structure (mounting stresses) as well as during the proof load tests. Thanks to the large number of Nerve-Sensors located at selected heights of the girders, detailed analysis of strain profiles was performed during each construction stage.

Eng. Structures
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The first Polish all-composite FRP bridge

First Polish road bridge fully made of FRP composites is unique not only due to its structural solution, but also thanks to our structural health monitoring based on our DFOS technology. A large number of sensors provide hundreds of measuring points to analyze strain, temperatures and displacements. Learn more about this Nerve-System.

Eng. Structures
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Lightweight concrete specimens

The case study prezents measurements of early-age concrete strains during tests made on the Laboratory of Building Material and Structures at Krakow University of Technology. The specimens under consideration were made from concrete on lightweight sintered aggregate. Some of them were prestressed after achieving the appropriate concrete strength to observe the influence of intensified creep. Our DFOS sensors were installed inside the formwork by specially designed mounting frames.

Laboratory
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Concrete cylinder – mechanical tests in laboratory conditions

Nerve-Sensors provide new tools for structural analysis of small-size laboratory specimens made of concrete. In this case, 20 standard cylinders were investigated in mechanical axial compression tests up to their failure. DFOS strain sensors allowed for measurements of both compression (longitudinal) and tension (circumferential) strains at the same time. Thanks to the unique data, advanced structural analysis was possible.
Laboratory
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Fibre-reinforced concrete mixed with the ground

Specimens made from the fibre-reinforced concrete mixed with the ground, were equipped with our Nerve-Sensors. Early-age material strains as well as mechanical strains induced in three-point bending tests were measured continuously in geometrical sense and then used for designing the real structural element - slurry wall (presented in another case study).

Laboratory
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